In the story Isreal and the Philistines were at war and Goliath would emerge daily to challenge the Jews to send their bravest warrior to defeat him and end the battle - however they were too frightened of Goliath's size and strength to do so and for over forty days Goliath pretty much kept the battle at a stalemate.
This would change when the young shepherd boy, David, arrived with food for his older brothers - he accepts Goliath's challenge and slays the giant via tossing a rock into his forehead using his trusty sling then proceeds to behead the fallen giant with his own sword - causing the Philistines to flee.
The tale of David and Goliath is often used to highlight how a man of faith can overcome impossible odds - much as David did when he slayed Goliath armed with nothing but a sling and faith in God.
The story of David and Goliath may also represent Christianity overcoming the Pagan religions - with the young David representing Christianity and the brutal Goliath representing the Pagan world, the stone David used to slay the giant may be considered a symbolism of the power of God in vanquishing all evils from the world.
- Goliath was parodied in the VeggieTales episode, "Dave and the Giant Pickle".
- Goliath has become a common name for any large and powerful male figure, much like "Hercules".