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It is wisdom, above all, that our guilty enemies want to drive from the Republic. To wisdom alone does it belong to consolidate the prosperity of empires. It is for her to guarantee the fruits of our courage.
~ Maximilien de Robespierre in a speech during the Festival of the Supreme Being.

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (May 6, 1758 - July 28, 1794) was a politician, lawyer, and a key figure in the French Revolution. He is the secondary antagonist of the 2014 video game Assassin's Creed: Unity. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety and was the last president and leader of the Jacobin Club as well as a member of the Templar Order.

He was voiced by Bruce Dinsmore.


Early life

The secret to freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret to tyranny is keeping them ignorant.
~ Robespierre

Robespierre was born on May 6, 1758 in Arras, France as the eldest of four children. His mother had died when he was six and his father had abandoned him, which forced the young Robespierre to take responsibility  in raising his siblings. In the meantime, he himself was raised by teachers of the Oratorian College of Arras of which he had attended. When Robespierre was 11, he was given a scholarship to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, the most prestigious university in France. He would also become heavily influenced by Enlightenment philosophers such as Denis Diderot.

Revolutionary Beginnings

Any law which violates the inalienable rights of man is essentially unjust and tyrannical; it is not a law at all. [...] Any institution which does not suppose the people good, and the magistrate corruptible, is evil.
~ Robespierre in 1793.

After completing his education as a lawyer, Robespierre was admitted into the Arras Bar. Although he destined for a modest life as a provincial lawyer, a financial crisis had broken out in France and King Louis XVI had to call in the Estates-General. On April 20, 1789, Robespierre was elected the fifth out of eight Third Estate deputies for the province of Artois. He soon became a critic of the monarchy and an advocate for societal reform. He then founded the National Assembly along with other deputies such as the Comte de Mirabeau, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès and the Marquis de Lafayette. During this period, he was also recruited into a radical faction of the Templar Order, led by François-Thomas Germain.

About 30 years later on May 5, 1789, Robespierre and his fellow Templars attended a private party at the Palace of Versailles. The party was secretly to host the induction of Élise de la Serre, the daughter of François de la Serre, into the Templar Order. On the same night however, Serre was murdered in a coup by Germain. Germain's goal was for a massive social revolution all across France which would empower the middle class, weaken the monarchy, and make it easier for the Templars to take over France and humanity as a whole.

Robespierre took up residence in Paris and would only return to Arras once. He would become a regular patron at intellectual establishments such as the Café Procope and the Café de la Regence. He joined the newly-founded Jacobin Club and became noted for his unflinching principles and conviction, earning the title of "the incorruptible". He was also known to being a talented speeker and appeared at various galleries despite his harsh tone and Artois accent. He also spoke at the National Assembly 5000 times where he spoke against the king and his ability to veto legistlation, conducted religious discrimination, and defended the rights of the common people. Mirabeau, who was vriefy the president of the Jacobin Club, said about him, "He will go far. He believes everything he says." Not much is known about his personal life other than that he lived an elegant but unluxorious life where he perfered to study and maintain good company. His extreme distrust often offended supplicants, but his disinterest in popularity made him a more respectable political figure.

2 years later on April 1791, the Templars met at the Hôtel de Beauvais where Robespierre spoke to his fellow Jacobins and called for the abolition of capital punishment. After the Templars had finished their meeting, Robespierre met up with Germain and Aloys la Touche. La Touche was placed under Robespierre's services and was tasked with spreading revolutionary terror throughout Versailles once the revolution had grown more radical and Robespierre had grown more powerful.

Rising to Power

We are being watched by all nations; we are debating in the presence of the universe.
~ Robespierre on the revolution.

Approximately a year later in April 1792, the revolutionary government of France under the control of the Girondists, the rival political party of the Jacobin Club, had declared war on the kingdoms of Austria and Prussia. Robespierre was one of the first politicians to critize the war, which the French appeared to have been losing. The war also lead to increased distrust of King Louis XVI and the royal family and Robespierre had effectively called for an official abolition of the entire monarchy. In August of 1792, revolutionary forces and soldiers from the insurrectionist Paris Commune, joined up and stormed the royal residence of the Tuileries Palace, overthrowing King Louis, ending the monarchy, and giving birth to the new French Republic with Robespierre celebrating the Republic's proclamation at the Café Février.

The new French Republic was governed by the National Convention and Robespierre served as a deputy and represented the French capitol city of Paris to the convention. Robespierre continued to agitate the revolutionaries of France motivating them to rise up and overthrow the aristocrats that were ruling France and reversed his position on capitol punishment calling for the execution of the disposed King Louis XVI. Louis was then brought before the convention and was tried for numerous crimes and Robespierre along with his fellow Templar and ally, Louis-Michel le Peletier, voted for his execution and so the disposed king was executed on the guillotine on January 21, 1793. 

Tensions eventually grew at the convention as Robespierre became obsessed with opponents and conspiracies against the revolution, especially from his political rivals, the Girondists, whose power diminished as they suffered a string of political defeats. His faction, comrpised radicals such as Georges Danton, Jean-Paul Marat, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, was named "the mountain" due to their positions in the upper gallery of the meeting hall.


           Assassins creed logo.png Villains


Juno | Instruments of the First Will | Builder | Loki

Templar Order

Cult of Kosmos (Peloponnesian War)

Aspasia | Deimos | Kleon | Pausanias of Sparta | Exekias | Iokaste | The Hydra | Polemon | Nyx | Elpenor | Sotera | The Master | Hermippos | Midas | Epiktetos | The Centaur of Euboea | The Chimera | The Silver Griffin | Machaon | Brison | Podarkes | Rhexenor | Iobates | Kodros | Pallas | Deianeira | Belos | Swordfish | Okytos | Melite | Harpalos | Zoisme | Diona | Chrysis | The Mytilenian Shark | Melanthos | The Octopus | Sokos | Asterion | Skylax | The Monger | Lagos | Kallias | Silanos

Order of the Ancients

Achaemenid Empire / Greek City-States: Amorges | Gergis | The Immortals | Artazostre | Dimokrates | Gaspar | Harpagos | Pithias | Phila | Augos | Megakreon | Nestor | Sophos | Nestor | Pactyas | Nestor | Akantha | Bubares | Echion | Konon | Phratagounè | Timosa
Ptolemaic Dynasty: Flavius Metellus | Lucius Septimius | Julius Caesar | Pothinus | Berenike | Hetepi | Khaliset | Taharqa | Eudoros | Medunamun | Rudjek | Ktesos | Actaeon | Gaius Julius Rufio | Ampelius | Ptahmose | Tacito
Tang Dynasty: An Lushan | Bian Lingcheng | Gao Lishi | Li Linfu | Li Zhuer | Shi Siming | Yan Zhuang | Yang Guozhong | Wang Chengye | Gao Miao | He Qiannian | Li Qincou | Sun Xiaozhe
Viking Age: Alfred the Great | Fulke | Gorm Kjotvesson | Avgos Spearhand | Frideswid | Hunta | Kjotve the Cruel | Leofgifu | Vicelin | Tatfrid | Gifle | Havelok | Herefrith | Mucel | Patrick | Wigmund | Reeve Derby | Abbess Ingeborg | Audun | Eanbhert | Grigorii | Gunilla | Tata | Blaeswith | Beneseck of Bath | Ealhferth | Heika of Friesland | Hilda | Selwyn | Yohanes Loukas | Zealots (Beorhtsige | Bercthun | Callin | Cola | Cudberct | Eorforwine | Heike | Horsa | Hrothgar | Kendall | Osgar | Redwalda | Wealdmaer | Woden)| Eogan mac Cartaigh | Bécc mac Nath-í | Niamh | Ruaidrí | Aideen | Conlae | Sétnae | Cummascach | Leasleach | Trian

Knight Templars (Crusades)

Robert de Sable | Maria Thorpe | Tamir | Talal | Garnier de Naplouse | Abu'l Nuqoud | William of Montferrat | Majd Addin | Jubair al Hakim | Sibrand | Haras | Armand Bouchart | Jacques de Molay

Italian Templars (Italian Renaissance)

Rodrigo Borgia | Ludovico Orsi | Checco Orsi | Jacopo de' Pazzi | Uberto Alberti | Francesco de' Pazzi | Vieri de' Pazzi | Antonio Maffei | Stefano da Bagnone | Bernardo Baroncelli | Francesco Salviati | Emilio Barbarigo | Marco Barbarigo | Carlo Grimaldi | Silvio Barbarigo | Juan Borgia the Elder | Lucrezia Borgia | Cesare Borgia | Octavian de Valois | Micheletto Corella | Silvestro Sabbatini | Malfatto | Ristoro | Lia de Russo | Auguste Oberlin | Fiora Cavazza | Il Carnefice

Spanish Templars (Spanish Inquisition)

Tomás de Torquemada | Ojeda | Ramirez

Byzantine Templars (16th Century Ottoman Empire)

Prince Ahmet | Manuel Palaiologos | Shahkulu | Leandros | Cyril of Rhodes | Damat Ali Pasha | Georgios Kostas | Lysistrata | Mirela Djuric | Odai Dunqas | Vali cel Tradat

Chinese Templars (Ming Dynasty)

Zhang Yong | Qiu Ju | Wei Bin | Yu Dayong | Ma Yongcheng | Gao Feng

Caribbean Templars (Golden Age of Piracy)

Laureano de Torres y Ayala | Woodes Rogers | Benjamin Hornigold | Josiah Burgess | John Cockram | Julien du Casse | Kenneth Abraham | Jing Lang | Hilary Flint | Lucia Márquez

Louisiana Templars (18th Century New Orleans)

Madeleine de L'Isle | Rafael Joaquín de Ferrer | George Davidson | Diego Vázquez | Antonio de Ulloa

Colonial Templars (American Revolution)

Haytham Kenway | Charles Lee | Nicholas Biddle | Benjamin Church | Shay Cormac | Thomas Hickey | John Pitcairn | William Johnson | Jack Weeks | Christopher Gist | George Monro | Edmund Judge

British Templars

Georgian and Colonial Era: Reginald Birch | Edward Braddock | Lawrence Washington | Samuel Smith | James Wardrop
Victorian Era: Crawford Starrick | Lucy Thorne | James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan | Philip Twopenny | Pearl Attaway | Malcolm Millner | John Elliotson | David Brewster | Rupert Ferris | Brinley Ellsworth | William Sleeman | Alexander Burnes

Parisian Templars (French Revolution)

Radical faction: Francois-Thomas Germain | Charles Gabriel Sivert | Le Roi des Thunes | Frédéric Rouille | Marie Lévesque | Louis-Michel le Peletier | Aloys la Touche | Flavigny | Marcourt | Maximilien de Robespierre | Jean Gilbert | Denis Molinier | Duchesneau | Arpinon
Moderate faction: François de la Serre | Élise de la Serre | Chrétien Lafrenière | Comte de Choisy

Russian Templars (Russian Revolution)

Yakov Yurovsky

21st Century Templars (Abstergo Industries, mainly)

Alan Rikkin | Warren Vidic | Daniel Cross | Juhani Otso Berg | Laetitia England | Laetitia England | Álvaro Gramática | Isabelle Ardant | Violet da Costa | Melanie Lemay

Templar's Allies and Puppets
Xerxes I of Persia | Ptolemy XIII | Cleopatra | Al Mualim | Abbas Sofian | Richard I of England | Sixtus IV | Dante Moro | Paganino | Jiajing Emperor | Isabella I of Castile | Duncan Walpole | Laurens Prins | Vance Travers | El Tiburón | Jean-Jacques Blaise d'Abbadie | James Cook | Kanen'tó:kon | Jacques Roux | Maxwell Roth | Leon Trotsky

Assassin Brotherhood & Their Allies
Achilles Davenport | Hope Jensen | Adéwalé | Kesegowaase | Liam O'Brien | Louis-Joseph Gaultier, Chevalier de la Vérendrye | Le Chasseur | Basim Ibn Ishaq

Bellatores Dei
Ebels | Engelwin | Euphrasia | Gozllin

Girolamo Savonarola's forces
Girolamo Savonarola | Painter | Guard Captain | Nobleman | Priest | Merchant | Doctor | Farmer | Condottiero | Preacher

Tyranny of George Washington
George Washington | Isreal Putnam | Benedict Arnold

Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper | John Billingsworth | Olwyn Owers

Gamilat | Isidora | Burgred of Mercia | Rued | Eadwyn | Ivarr the Boneless | Ricsige of Northumbria | Modron | Charles the Fat | Ercole Massimo | Peter Chamberlaine | Bartholomew Roberts | Pierre, Marquis de Fayet | Silas Thatcher | Philippe Rose | Fiend of Fleet Street