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Outer Heaven is both the concept of Big Boss's vision (which is based on his interpretation of his former mentor The Boss's will which said soldiers shouldn't be treated like tools) and a private military company named after the idea. Outer Heaven is the main antagonist of Metal Gear and was believed to be presided by it's forger, Big Boss.
Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops
In 1970, Big Boss, then known as Naked Snake, battled Gene, who wished to create Army's Heaven, which was his exploitative concept for a nation of soldiers. Snake responded that soldiers were looking for something "outside Gene's 'heaven'", and defeated him. Gene would give Snake the resources of Army's Heaven, knowing he was a worthy successor.
Snake planned to create a better place for soldiers as part of the newly-formed Patriots. In 1972, however, after he and Major Zero fell out over their interpretation of the Boss's will and thus Zero's direction for the Patriots, Snake abandoned them, and formed Militaires Sans Frontières.
Militaires Sans Frontières
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MSF, as it was known, was Snake's Private Military Company, that would provide military support to any country or individual, and act in opposition to the Patriots, or Cipher. During the events of Peace Walker, MSF grew in influence and power, even becoming the world's 7th nuclear power. Big Boss believed that MSF was becoming his personal "Outer Heaven": a soldier's paradise existing free of any one global power's political control; or a home for those shunned amidst a global cold war. However, during the events of Ground Zeroes, MSF was all but destroyed by XOF, Cipher's secret strike force, during a false UN inspection.
Diamond Dogs, and the true Outer Heaven
With Big Boss left in a coma as a result of the attack, Kazuhira Miller formed Diamond Dogs from the remnants of MSF in the early 1980's. In 1984, Venom Snake, a body double of the real Big Boss brainwashed into thinking he was the real thing, took command of Diamond Dogs, and expanded it into a full-on mercenary force. While Diamond Dogs battled XOF, the real Big Boss began establishing his true vision of Outer Heaven in South Africa, using Venom's actions to expand his legend. At some point, Diamond Dogs was presumably absorbed into Outer Heaven.
In the 1980s, Big Boss founded Outer Heaven as a nation in a large fortress stationed in South Africa. Said fortress was designed and built by the architect Kyle Schneider who later formed a revolution against the nation when his wife and child died. While Big Boss was supposedly the commander of Outer Heaven, he in fact used his body double, or "phantom", Venom Snake as the nation's leader, while he led FOXHOUND, playing both sides. "Big Boss" also had his nation build the TX-55 Metal Gear to act as their ultimate weapon.
When the West noticed the tyrannical nation, they sent the rookie FOXHOUND operative Solid Snake to inspect it and rescue another FOXHOUND agent Gray Fox who was kidnapped by Outer Heaven and made a prisoner of war. Big Boss sent Solid Snake on said mission in hopes that he would fail, as he was only a rookie and he had an army of mercenaries sent to assassinate him. However, Big Boss was incorrect as Snake killed all of the mercenaries, saved Gray Fox, and destroyed Metal Gear.
Left with no other choice, the fortress was set to self destruct, and Venom Snake confronted Snake in person, playing the role of Big Boss, hoping to ensure he died with him. After an intense battle, Venom was killed by the rookie who escaped the facility just before detonation. Shortly afterwards, NATO launched an air raid to wipe out any remaining Outer Heaven facilities, indifferent to the resulting deaths of those in the area (since the war orphans and refugees were considered a liability).
The real Big Boss used these events to have the world believe in his death. Big Boss managed to save many of those in the Outer Heaven area, including the surviving fortress personnel; mercenaries; and even Resistance members, and secretly form the military known as Zanzibar Land. Big Boss went on to rival Solid Snake again in 1999, which led to his seeming death, and the end of the Outer Heaven ideology.